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It is a disease caused by the bacteria Salmonella and is usually characterized by acute onset of fever, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea and sometimes vomiting. Symptoms of salmonellosis are relatively mild and patients will make a recovery without specific treatment in most cases. However, in some cases, particularly in children and elderly patients, the associated dehydration can become severe and life-threatening. It is 1 of the 4 key global causes of diarrhoeal disease.
It is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira and affects both humans as well as other animals. Leptospirosis is one of the world’s most widespread diseases transmitted by animals to humans. In most of the cases, leptospirosis only causes mild flu-like symptoms, such as headache, chills and muscle pain. However, in some cases, the infection is more severe and can cause life-threatening problems, including organ failure and internal bleeding. Severe form of leptospirosis is known as Weil’s disease.
Visceral leishmaniasis is commonly known as kala-azar (KA), which literally means “black disease”, referring to the greyish or blackish discoloration of the skin during infection. The disease is caused by the parasite L. donovani and it remains one of the major eco-epidemiological hotspots of the world.
It is a mosquito-borne disease caused by the Zika virus. In many cases there are no symptoms, but it can present in a similar way to dengue fever. Symptoms might include fever, red eyes, joint pain, headache and a maculopapular rash. Women who are infected by Zika virus during pregnancy can bear children with serious health conditions, including microcephaly, which can cause life-long disabilities.
It is a viral disease transmitted to humans via infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Symptoms typically include fever, joint pain, headache, muscle pain, joint swelling and rash. In most cases, a patient’s condition will improve within a week, however occasionally the joint pain may last longer. Chikungunya shares some clinical signs with Zika and dengue, leading to potential misdiagnosis in areas where these diseases are prevalent.
Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that has rapidly spread in India in recent years. Dengue virus is transmitted by female mosquitoes mainly of the species Aedes aegypti and, to a lesser extent, Ae. albopictus. Symptoms typically begin three to fourteen days after infection. Common symptoms of dengue include fever, rash, nausea and aches and pains, lasting up to a week. Some people with dengue develops complications that can result in internal bleeding, shock and even death.
Malaria spreads through the bite of the female Anopheles’ mosquito, which in turn is a carrier for a parasite called Plasmodium. The symptoms of Malaria include chills, sweat, fever and muscle pain. The malarial parasites multiply at a fast rate inside the human body and need immediate medical attention. Malaria is endemic to India and the country is trying to achieve malaria-free status by 2030.
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